Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Network Bulletin v. 20, no. 6, June 1995 Barren Island (India) Lava flow from W flank of cone; central vent explosions Barren Island Andaman Islands, India 12.29N, 93.88E; summit elev. 305 m The Geological Survey of India (GSI) visited Barren Island again on 11 May. At that time only the central conduit was vigorously active, with continuing phreatomagmatic eruptions. The vents near the S crater wall and S foot of the volcanic cone, sites of strong activity on 8 March (Bulletin v. 20, no. 4), were inactive. Seawater temperature at the only landing site ranged widely from 38 to 70 deg C, and atmospheric temperatures were 70 and 55 deg C at distances of ~10 and 15 m, respectively, from the advancing lava front. Fire fountains from the central vent rose to a height of ~150 m. Dark fumes sometimes attained a height of ~400 m. The eruption column was ~100 m across and fed a mushroom-shaped cloud over the crater region. Approximately 90% of the activity from the main conduit was explosive, but eruptive pulses occurred without rumbling sounds. Eruption column fall-out consisted of profuse quantities of cinder, ash, and rock debris. A new vent at the W foot of the cone, ~1.5 km ESE of the landing site, exhibited continuous emission of very liquid lava and bluish fumes, but no explosive activity. The lava erupted from this vent formed a 15-m-high and 70-m-wide flow front that was slowly advancing W towards the landing site, threatening to engulf it. The lava flow was advancing at a rate of ~2 m/hour on 11 May. The 1995 lava is a basalt (50.4-52.3% SiO2 and 2.5-3.1% Na2O + K2O) with mega-xenocrysts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine in decreasing abundance. The groundmass is composed of glass, plagioclase microlites, and Fe-Ti oxides showing intersertal to very rare fluidal texture. The 1995 lava differs from the lava erupted in 1991 in its the absence of wall-rock xenoliths, its greater abundance of mega-xenocrysts, and its groundmass texture. Major elements were determined for ten samples of January 1995 lava. Compared to 1991 lavas (13 samples), the 1995 basalt is deficient in SiO2 and K2O (although total alkali values are similar), but enriched in Al2O3, CaO, and MgO. Information Contacts: Director General, Geological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Calcutta 700 016, India; Deputy Director General, Geological Survey of India, Ops. WSA Eastern Region, 4 Chowringhee Lane, Calcutta 700 016, India.