Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea
September-October 1994 eruptions and current activity
Space Shuttle (STS-64) photo of Rabaul volcanic cloud taken on September 19, 1994 (GIF - 222K) (JPG - 125K)
Space Shuttle - SIRC Composite Radar Image taken October 11, 1994. Description of the image. (GIF - 412K) (JPG - 276K)
- Stereo-aerial photo of Tavurvur Volcano, Rabaul Caldera. Can be viewed in stereo if printed and viewed with stereoscopes. Photo taken in 1944. For additional reference see image. Contributed by Jonathan Byron: Dept of Geograph, Univ of South Carolina (GIF - 355K)
- Aerial photograph and sidescan sonar of Rabaul Caldera and Simpson Bay. (JPEG - 165K) Contributed by Andrew Goodliffe at Univ of Hawaii. See the SOEST Marine Geosciences Projects page for more information. Reference: Taylor, B. 1991
- Geologic and topographic maps of Rabaul Calera
- Raised relief style oblique map by Tau Rho Alpha and H. Gary Greene, U.S. Geological Survey's Atlas of Oblique Maps I-1799. Contributed by Mark Bonito - USGS Menlo Park. (JPG - 394K)
- Regional tectonic map showing plates and movement (GIF - 13K)
- Topographic and bathymetric map of Rabaul Caldera (fig 5.7.1 of Newhall and Dzurisin, See historical section below) (GIF - 28K)
- Geologic map of Rabaul Caldera (fig 5.7.2 of Newhall and Dzurisin, See historical section below) (GIF - 26K)
- Vent location and seismicity from the
crisis period of 1983-84. Contributed by Jim Mori- USGS Pasadena. (GIF-14K) Data published in
Science, V.235, p. 193, 1987.
Satellite images of volcanic cloud from Rabaul Caldera
- NOAA-12 Imagery - Courtesy of NOAA-NESDIS
- 091994 -0800GMT (GIF - 166K)
- METEOR-3 TOMS Observations of Rabaul Eruption Plume
- - Courtesy of Ian Sprod - TOMS-SO2 Group, NASA/Goddard
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 19, 1994 0538 GMT
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 20, 1994 0520 GMT
- TOMS image Sept 20, 1994 0520GMT, showing SO2 cloud (GIF - 12K)
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 21, 1994 0503 GMT
- TOMS image Sept 21, 1994 0503 GMT, showing SO2 cloud (GIF - 12K)
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 22, 1994 0445 GMT
- TOMS image Sept 22, 1994 0445 GMT, showing SO2 cloud (GIF - 12K)
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 23, 1994 0430 GMT
- TOMS image Sept 23, 1994 0430 GMT, showing SO2 cloud (GIF - 12K)
- Interpretations of TOMS data from Sept 24, 1994 0410 GMT
- Synoptic Analysis Branch - NOAA/NESDIS
- Graphical analysis of the GMS-4 imagery displaying the aerial extent and propagation of the volcanic cloud from 18-19 September 1994
- Propagation of the volcanic cloud through time. Isochrons show lateral extent of cloud.
- Surface area calculations of the volcanic cloud through time.
- GMS-4 Satellite Imagery
- Images/animations and observations compiled from GMS-4 archives
- MPEG animation of eruption from GMS-4 IR. Zoom on movement of Rabaul volcanic cloud showing directions of transport, mainly west with portions blown to the south and back to the east. First frame is less than one hour before eruption on Sept 18, 1994 2132GMT and the last is during the waning stages on Sept 20, 1994 1625H (MPEG - 284K 60 frames).
- MPEG animation of eruption from GMS-4 VISIBLE. Zoom on movement of Rabaul volcanic cloud showing directions of transport. Same sequence as GMS-4 IR (above) but spans from Sept 18, 1994 2132GMT to Sept 22, 1994 0832H. Notice bright spot (sun glint) moving across the earth right to left. (MPEG - 255K 70 frames).
- Preliminary observations of the GMS images.
- Observations and interpretations of September 19th volcanic cloud (Update 21)
- Full archive of GMS-4 images/animations are available from anonymous ftp at MTU.
- Regional view of volcanic cloud from GMS-4 IR, September 19, 1994 1500 GMT. Australia can be seen to the south (JPEG - 223K).
- Zoom on volcanic cloud, labels denote location of landmarks, from GMS-4 IR, September 19, 1994 1500 GMT (GIF - 190K)
- MPEG animation eruption from GMS-4 IR. Whole earth animations, series is repeated several times per MPEG. Volcanic cloud can be seen northeast of Australia. Animation starts before eruption (MPEG - 1,076K)
- MPEG animation eruption from GMS-4 VIS. Whole earth animations, series is repeated several times per MPEG. Volcanic cloud can be seen northeast of Australia. Animation starts before eruption (MPEG - 886K).
- Full size GMS-4 image showing volcanic cloud with respect to rest of eastern hemisphere, September 19, 1994 1500 GMT (JPEG - 314K).
- Source for GMS-4 images is archive site at explorer.arc.nasa.gov.
- IR and false color IR animations originated from the Michigan State University Weather Server:
- IR zoom of GMS-4 data.
- False Color IR zoom of GMS-4 data.
Historical and background information
- Excerpts about Rabaul Caldera from Historical Unrest at Large Calderas of the World Vol. 1 (USGS Bulletin 1855, Newhall, CG and Dzurisin, D 1988)
- Contains historical information, geologic and topographic maps.
- Predicted fate of a quarantine station (Quote about quarantine station from George Murray (1939)) that was proposed to be built on Vulcan Isand, west side of Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea. The island was known to rise, tilt, and subside over time adn was devastated by pyroclastic flows and tephra fall during the eruption of Vulcan in 1937. Sketch by Bobbie Myers, USGS.
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