Smithsonian Institution
Global Volcanism Network Bulletin v. 19, no. 11, November 1994
Kliuchevskoi (Kamchatka)  Moderate explosive eruption causes minor
      ashfall 30 km away
Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (56.06N, 160.64E)
All times are local (= GMT - 12 hours)
Although clouds obscured the volcano in early November, continuous
tremor (maximum amplitude 0.1-0.3 fm) was recorded, and 4-11
earthquakes/day were detected under the volcano except on 7
November, when 23 events occurred. On 10 November, a gas-and-steam
plume seen from Kliuchi (30 km NNE) was directed ESE for ~1 km. An
observer in Kliuchi saw a gas-and-steam plume on 12 November rising
1 km above the summit that extended ~10 km ENE. On 18 November,
observers in Kozirevsk (50 km W) saw a gas-and-steam column rising
50 m above the summit crater. Seismicity on the 18th consisted of
continuous tremor (maximum amplitude 0.24 fm), one weak deep
earthquake, and 9 shallow events.
A moderate explosive eruption occurred beginning about 0400 on 23
November, based on interpretations of seismicity. The volcano was
completely obscured by clouds, but as much as 0.5 mm of ash fell in
Kliuchi. Thirteen strong and shallow earthquakes beneath the
volcano between 0400 and 1200 had maximum amplitudes of 14.25 fm at
a seismic station 14 km from the volcano, and were recorded at
stations up to 70 km away; persistent volcanic tremor had a maximum
amplitude of ~0.33 fm. Comparing the seismicity to that of 30
September-1 October, the ash plume may have reached an altitude of
~7 km.
On 24 November, observers in Kliuchi noted a vigorous gas-and-steam
plume containing minor ash rising 1 km above the volcano and
extending >30 km NE. Weak tremor (amplitude ~0.15 fm) and 22
shallow earthquakes were registered beneath the crater area. The
next day, observers in Kozirevsk reported a gas-and-steam plume
above the volcano. Continuous tremor was recorded ~32 km from the
volcano, and 12 shallow earthquakes were recorded beneath the
crater area. On 28 November, a gas-and-steam plume seen from
Kliuchi rose 2 km above summit and extended 3 km SW. A vigorous
gas-and-steam plume of unknown height was also seen from Kliuchi on
the 30th, continuous tremor (0.4 fm) was recorded 11 km away, and
73 shallow earthquakes were detected as far as 70 km away.
Information Contacts: Vladimir Yu. Kirianov, Piip Ave. 9, Institute
of Volcanic Geology & Geochemistry (B.V. Ivanov, Director),
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii 683006, Russia (Email:; Alaska Volcano Observatory (see Kanaga).