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General Information


Nicaragua is a democratic republic in Central America. It is the largest nation in the isthmus, but also the least densely populated with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbours. The country is bordered on the north by Honduras and on the south by Costa Rica. Its western coastline is on the Pacific Ocean, while the east side of the country is on the Caribbean Sea.


The country's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lago de Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the Spanish word Agua, meaning water, due to the presence of the large lakes Lago de Nicaragua and Lago de Managua in the region.


At the time of the Spanish conquest, Nicaragua was the name given to the narrow strip of land between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Ocean. Chief Nicarao ruled over that land when the first conquerors arrived. The term was eventually applied, by extension, to the group that inhabited that region: the Nicaraos or Niquiranos.


The Nicarao tribe migrated to the area from northern regions after the fall of Teotihuacán, on the advice of their religious leaders. According to tradition, they were to travel south until they encountered a lake with two volcanoes rising out of the waters, and so they stopped when they reached Ometepe, the largest fresh-water volcanic island in the world.


History                      Infrastructure                      Media Outlets                      Government Agencies                    Universities              Embassies and Consulates                       

Maps and geographic Information                      Government



*To know more about Nicaragua





UNTIL the late 1970’s, Nicaragua had one of the most dynamic economies of Central America, despite the dictatorship which prevailed in the county for more than 40 years. In 1979, the revolutionary government of the Sandinistas took power. The state intervention in the economy, the restrictions of this government on the free economy and politics, and the civil war lead the country into a profound economic and social crisis.


After the elections of 1990, the presidency of the Republic was assumed by Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, who founded her government on the principle of national reconciliation. She also initiated the transition from war to peace, from authoritarianism to democracy, and from a state economy to a market economy. At the same time, the government managed to stabilize the economy, and the process of steady economic growth began.


In January of 1997, Mr. Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo of the Liberal Alliance became the President of the Republic, a fact which demonstrates the strengthening of the Nicaraguan political system to guarantee a peaceful transition of political power.


The election of Mr Aleman Lacayo as President of Nicaragua constitutes a guarantee that our country will continue to strengthen democracy and sustain the necessary policies to protect the market economy as well as the economic and social development.





total: 18,712 km

paved: 2,126 km

unpaved: 16,586 km (2002 est.)



Main article: Rail transport in Nicaragua

total: 0 km (all abandoned)

narrow gauge: 0 km 1.067-m gauge

note: Last line in operation carried mostly passengers from Chichigalpa to Ingenio San Antonio (6 km) until 2001



2,220 km, including 2 large lakes. There is also the potential Nicaragua canal.



crude oil 54 km (2004)


Ports and harbors:

Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur


Merchant marine:

none (1999 est.)



176 (2004 est.)


Airports - with paved runways:

total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3

(2005 est.)


Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 165

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 141

(2005 est.)




Embassies and Consulates:

Información tomada de la pagina de la Cancillería de Nicaragua



(Information in Spanish)


Universidad Americana

Universidad Católica

Universidad Centroamericana

Universidad Centroamericana de Ciencias Empresariales

 Universidad de Ciencias Comerciales

Universidad Iberoamericana de Ciencia y Tecnología

Universidad Nacional Agraria

 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua

Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería

Universidad Politécnica de Nicaragua


Government Agencies

 (Related with natural resources. most of the information is in Spanish)




Ministerio Agropecuario y Forestal

Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales-MARENA




National Forestry Institute: Instituto Nacional Forestal-INAFOR


National Technological Institute:  Instituto Nacional Tecnológico-INATEC



Nicaraguan Institute for Water Supply and  Sewer Systems

Instituto Nicaragüense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados-INAA


Nicaraguan Institute for Rural Development : Instituto Nicaragüense de Desarrollo Rural-IDR


Nicaraguan Institute for Territory Studies: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales-INETER


Nicaraguan Institute for Energy Instituto Nicaragüense de Energía-INE







Geographic Information







Another source of maps








Media Outlets















Politics of Nicaragua takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.



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