On-line resources


Glacier Hazards and Society


Theory of Planned Behavior  -  Includes how to write a survey for planned behavior research.








Ethnographic Methods





Text resources


Qualitative data and Ethnographic Methodologies


Agar, Michael. (1996 ed.) The Professional Stranger: An informal introduction to ethnographySan Diego, CA:  Academic Press, Inc.

A readable, overall introduction to doing ethnography by a seasoned  anthropologist.  Covers how to develop a topic, thinking about fieldwork, find funding, review the literature, proposal writing, informal and formal methods, writing a research proposal.  Students uniformly like this book for its coverage and interesting writing style.

Bernard, H. Russell. 2006. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Fourth Edition. New York: Alta Mira Press.

An excellent reference for the ethnographer.  This is the main text used in graduate courses for anthropologists.  We use it selectively for undergraduates.  Particularly useful for specific methods such as interviewing, participant observation, sampling and for theoretical foundations of social science research.  Also excellent, and detailed, in types of analysis for qualitative research (coding interviews and field notes; text analysis) and for quantitative research (univeriate, bivariate, multivariate analysis).

Bernard, H. Russell, ed.  1998.  Handbook of Methods in Cultural AnthropologyLandham, MD: AltaMira Press.

A collection of essays by anthropologists on research design, selecting appropriate methods, ethics, participant observation, interviewing, discourse analysis, visual anthropology, archival research, data analysis, and presenting research findings. The chapter on “Methods in Applied Anthropology” may be of particular interest to students in Peace Corps or other programs involved with collaborative development work.

Robert Cambers,  Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Analysis of Experience, World Development, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 1253-1268, 1994.

Robert Chambers. Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1997

DeWalt, K.M., Dewalt, B.R., 2002. Participant Observation: A guide for fieldworkersWalnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press

Donovan, K., 2010, Doing Social Volcanology: Exploring Volcanic Culture in Indonesia, Area Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 117–126, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2009.00899.x

Emerson, R.M., R I Fretz, L.L. Shaw. 1995. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An overall excellent read and reference for how to keep field notes while in the “field.”  Covers multiple strategies for what to cover, different ways to keep notes, and how to analyze your notes as data.  A regular and popular text in all anthropology methods classrooms.

Emilio A. Parrado,  Chris Mcquiston, & Chenoa A. Flippen, Participatory survey research, integrating community collaboration and quantitative methods for the study of gender and HIV risks among Hispanic migrants, Sociological Methods & Research, vol. 34, no. 2, Nov 2005, 204-239. (Can be downloaded from MTU e-journals online).

Lassiter, Luke Eric. 2005. The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

A good source on the history, theory, and practice of collaborate ethnography—a type of qualitative research that integrates community members from the field into research design, implementation, and analysis.   A good foundation for beginning community-based-research.

Franzel S., D. PhiriP. Mafongoy, I. Jere, R. Katanga, S. Phiri, The Blending Of Participatory Research And Quantitative Methods: Wealth Status, Gender And The Adoption Of Improved Fallows In Zambia. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) 16 ñ 22 August 2003, Durban, South Africa.

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 1999. N. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. New York: Zed Books.

Written by a Maori social scientist, a theoretical and practical guide for development of research projects by indigenous scholars.  Discussion of Western social science research strategies from an indigenous perspective is eye-opening to Western researchers and helps them navigate the difficult waters of “outsider” research (See chapter 2 – Research through Imperial Eyes).  Students find this thought provoking and very helpful in framing research projects in non-Western communities.

Sunstein, B.S. and E. Chiseri-Strater. 2007. FieldWorking: Reading and Writing Research, Third Edition.  New York: St. Martin’s Press.

An excellent undergraduate text that introduces students to fieldwork.  Many exercises and examples for all stages of research—from ethics, participant observation, interviewing, keeping field notes, analyzing data, and writing the ethnographic report.  Our students have found this a great guide to doing classroom research projects in their own communities.  Helps you find and analyze the “culture” in every location—from the mundane to the exotic.

Wolcott, Harry F.  1995.  The Art of FieldworkWalnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

An engaging overview of approaches to ethnographic fieldwork, issues that arise in the field, data collection and analysis, and writing up results.  Students enjoy the readable and reflective nature of this book, which sees fieldwork as more of an art than a technical skill.

Wallerstein, N. and B. Duran (2003). The Conceptual, Historical and Practical Roots of Community Based Participatory Research and Related Participatory Traditions. Community Based Participatory Research for Health. M. Minkler and N. Wallerstein. San Francisco, Jossey Bass: 27-52

 Viswanathan M, Ammerman A, Eng E, Gartlehner G, Lohr KN, Griffith D, Rhodes S, Samuel- Hodge C, Maty S, Lux, L, Webb L, Sutton SF, Swinson T, Jackman A, Whitener L., 2004, Community-Based Participatory Research: Assessing the Evidence. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 99 (Prepared by RTI–University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016). AHRQ Publication 04-E022- 2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. July.


Survey design


Sudman, Seymore & Norman M. Bradburn.  1982.  Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design.  Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco.

Creswell, J.W. Research Design, Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2003. Sage Publications Ltd.

Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Sage Publications Ltd.

Sunstein, B.S. & Chiseri-Strater, E. 2007. Fieldworking - Reading and Writing Research. Bedford/St. Martin's



Statistical approaches to research questions


Quinn, J.F. & A.E. Dunham.  1983.  On Hypothesis Testing in Ecology and Evolution. The American Naturalist 122(5): 602-617.

Stephens, P.A. et al. 2006. Inference in Ecology and Evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(4): 192-197.


Method overview - combination survey & biological data


Cinner, J.E. & T.R. McClanahan.  2006.  Socioeconomic factors that lead to overfishing in small-scale coral reef fisheries of Papua New Guinea.  Environmental Conservation 33(1): 73-80.


Analysis Tools


Rosenberg K.M., 2006, The Excel statistics companion.  2nd ed. Wadsworth Publishing.




Barrett, C.B., and J.W. Cason.  1997.  Overseas Research: A Practical Guide.  Johns Hopkins University Press.  Baltimore.

Belakere, Ramegowda and K.M. Jayaramaiah.  1997.  Community Development in Drought-Prone AreasCommunity Development Journal  32(2): 133-140.  Compares views of aid givers and recipients.

Bertrand, M., and S. Mullainathan. 2001. Do people mean what they say? Implications for social survey data. American Economic Review 91(2):67-72.

Bleek, W.  1987.  Lying informants: A fieldwork experience from GhanaPopulation and Development Review 13(2):314-322.

Boa, E., et al. 2001.  Standing on all three legs: the Tecnico as a cross-cultural occupational group. Economic Botany 55(3):363-369.  Discusses advantages of using local technical experts in surveys.

Cedamon, E.D. and N. Emtage.  2005.  Conducting surveys on forestry attitudes and practices in Leyte communities, Philippines: experiences and lessons learnt.  Small-scale Forest Economics, Management, and Policy 4(1):69-84.  Describes some of the problems of conducting interviews and surveys in rural and remote locations, problems with HSR when review boards don’t know what they are doing.

Clemens, M.S.  2008.  Participant observation at Buduburam refugee settlement, Ghana: Fatigue, fevers, and food rations.  Practicing Anthropology 30(3):33-37.

Datta, Dipankar.  2006.  The role of local elites in development projects: an experience from the Sudan.  PLA Notes 54:128-134.  An example of talking to the wrong people.  Response bias.

Devereux, S. and J. Hoddinott.  1993.  Fieldwork in developing countries.  Lynne Rienner Publishing, Boulder CO.

Emerson, R.M., R.I. Fretz, and L.L. Shaw.  1995.  Writing ethnographic fieldnotes.  U. of Chicago Press.  Chicago.

Grootaert and van Bastelaer, eds., 2002, Understanding and Measuring Social Capital: A Multi-Disciplinary Tool for Practitioners. Order from Worldbank.

Inglis, Andy.  1991.  Harvesting local forestry knowledge: a comparison of RRA and conventional surveysRRA Notes 12:32-40

Kitchin, R. and N.J. Tate.  2000.  Conducting research into human geography.  Prentice-Hall., Harlow, England.

Legros, Stephane,  Youssef Tawfik, Hany Abdallah, Xavier Crespin, Mamoudou Djingarey and Tessie Tzavaras Catsambas.  2002.  Evaluation of the Quality Assurance Project and BASICS Joint Project in NigerInternational Journal for Quality in Health Care  14(1): 97-104.  Good example of self-reporting bias.

Monroe. M.C.  2001.  Evaluation’s friendly voice: the structured open-ended interviewApplied Environmental Education and Communication.  2001:13-18.

Nichols, Paul.  1991.  Social survey methods: a fieldguide for development workers.  Development guidelines No. 6.  Oxfam.  Oxford.

Paul, B.K.  2003.  Relief assistance to 1998 flood victims: a comparison of the government and NGOS.  The Geographical Journal 169(1):75-89.  Interesting comparison of work done by two different groups.  Includes interviews, acknowledges why there may be some bias.

Peace Corps,  DPM: Integrating disaster preparedness and mitigation in your work. The Idea Book Series Publication No. M0084. August 2001

Rubin, H.J., and I.S. Rubin.  Qualitative Interviewing: the art of hearing dataSage publications.  Thousand Oaks CA

Sanjek, Roger.  1990.  Fieldnotes: the makings of anthropology.  Cornell University Press, Cornell NY

Trevett, Andrew Francis, Richard C. Carter and Sean F. Tyrrel.  2004.  Water quality deterioration: A study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras.  International Journal of Environmental Health Research  14(4): 273-283.

Utarini, Adi, Anna Winkvist and Gretel H. Pelto.  2001.  Appraising Studies in Health Using Rapid Assessment Procedures (RAP): Eleven Critical Criteria.  Human Organization  60 (4):  390-400.

Yin, Robert K.  2009.  Case study research: design and methods (4th ed).  Sage publications.  Thousand Oaks CA.

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Spring ‘10 (4/6 &4/8)




Institutional Review Board (IRB) - Human Subjects in Research (pdf)


Quantitative Methods


Readings on research contexts, starter bibliography - qualitative methods (doc)

Design a Peace Corps Project – Quantitative survey (pdf)


Qualitative Methods


Qualitative methods bibliography (doc)

Field note, interview, and mapping examples (pdf) from Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes by Emerson, Fretz, and Shaw.

Design a Peace Corps Project - Qualitative interview (pdf)

Donovan, K., 2010, Doing Social Volcanology: Exploring Volcanic Culture in Indonesia, Area Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 117–126, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2009.00899.x


Recorded Sessions


Qualitative and Ethnographic Research Methods - Dr. Kari Henquinet, Assistant Professor, Social Sciences


Innovation Diffusion and Sustainable Development - Jarod Maggio, PhD candidate Civil and Environmental Engineering


Design a Peace Corps Project (quantitative) - Dr. Carol MacLennan, Associate Professor of Anthropology

(note: video is cut at ~10 mins, eliminating group discussion time)


Quantitative Survey Methods and case study - Dr. Kedmon Hungwe, Associate Professor in Teacher Education

(note: video is cut at ~50 mins, eliminating group discussion time)







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