Land Surface Changes

Most of land surface which is not glaciated is already substantially changed by man.  These changes: deforestation, agriculture, mining, building constructions, pavement, fishing, power generation by burning fossil fuels etc.  change earth processes.  They change earth temperatures, accelerate erosion and river discharges, change evaporation rates, upset plant and animal populations and ecosystems.

Isle Royale Sands are part of a mining operation.  The mines were underground, consisting of shafts and tunnels where promising rocks were blasted loose and then transported to the surface, where the “ore” was separated from “poor rock”.  The ore was sent to the mill where it was processed to separate the copper.  The poor rock and rock waste were then carried away and dumped, usually somewhere on the surface.  The mills sometimes produced waste that were toxic---these were often included in the poor rock and dumped on the surface. The Isle Royale Sands are waste rock, which was dumped in the lake alongside the Pilgrim river delta from mines 3-5 miles away near Hurontown, Dodgeville and Superior.

Isle Royale #6, near Dodgeville