GeoElements of Michigan’s Keweenaw:
Lavas    Sandstone    Fault    Glaciers    Lake
Blake Pt.
Agate Harbor
Grand Marais

Gay Sands

Bete Grise

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  2. Adamo, P. and Violante, P., 2000, Weathering of rocks and neogenesis of minerals associated with lichen activity, Applied Clay Science, v. 16, pp. 229-256.

  3. Albert, D.A., 2000, Born of the wind: An introduction to the ecology of Michigan sand dunes, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI, 63pp. [PDF]

  4. Atwater, T. and Porter, S., 2009, The last deglaciation of North America, 21,400-5,700 years ago. [Movie]

  5. Barron, E.J., 1996, First case study: Plate tectonics and climate – episodes of extensive glaciation and extreme global warmth, in Climatic variation in Earth history, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, CO. [PDF]

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  7. Behrendt, J.C., Green, A.G., Cannon, W.F., Hutchinson, D.R., Lee, M.W., Milkereit, B., Agena, W.F., and Spencer, C., 1988, Crustal structure of the Midcontinent Rift system: Results from the GLIMPCE deep seismic reflection profiles, Geology, v. 16, pp. 81–85.

  8. Bjornerud, M., 2005, Reading the rocks: The autobiography of the Earth, Basic Books, New York, 256 pp.

  9. Bornhorst, T.J., 1975, Petrochemistry of the Fish Cove rhyolite, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, U.S.A., Chem. Geol., v. 15, pp. 295-302.

  10. Bornhorst, T.J. and Brandt, D., 2009a, Michigan’s earliest geology: The Precambrian, in Schaetzl, R., Darden, J., and Brandt, D., eds., Michigan Geography and Geology, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York, pp. 24–39.

  11. Bornhorst, T.J. and Lankton, L.D., 2009b, Copper mining: A billion years of geologic and human history, in Schaetzl, R., Darden, J., and Brandt, D., eds., Michigan Geography and Geology, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York, pp. 150–173.

  12. Bornhorst, T.J. and Barron, R.J., 2011, Copper deposits of the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Geol. Soc. Am. Field Guide 24, pp. 83-99.  doi:10.1130/2011.0024(05).

  13. Bornhorst, T.J. and Barron, R.J., 2013, Geologic Overview of the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 59th Annual Meeting, Houghton, MI, Part 2 – Field Trip Guidebook, v. 59, pp. 1 - 42.  ISSN 1042-9964. [PDF]

  14. Bornhorst, T.J., Paces, J.B., Grant, N.K., Obradovich, J.D., and Huber, N.K., 1988, Age of native copper mineralization, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, Econ. Geol. Bull. Soc. Econ. Geol., v. 83, pp. 619–625.  doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.83.3.619.

  15. Brennan, C.E., 1995, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics, Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 019509409. Retrieved from:

  16. Bricker, D.M., 1977, Seismic Disturbances in Michigan, GIMDL-Circular 14, Department of Natural Resources, Geology Division, Lansing, MI, 5 pp. [PDF]

  17. Broderick, T.M., 1929, Zoning in Michigan copper deposits and its significance, Econ Geol, v. 24, pp. 311-326. [PDF]

  18. Broderick, T.M., 1931, Fissure vein and lode relations in Michigan copper deposits, Econ. Geol., v. 26, pp. 840-856. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.26.8.840

  19. Broderick, T.M., 1935, Differentiation in lavas of the Michigan Keweenawan, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 46, pp. 503-58.

  20. Broderick, T.M., Hohl, C.D., and Eidemiller, H.N., 1946, Recent contributions to the geology of the Michigan copper district, Economic Geology, v. 41, pp. 675-725.

  21. Bruno, B.C., Taylor, G.J., Rowland, S.K., Lucey, P.G., Self, S., (1992, Lava flows are fractals, Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 19, pp. 305-308.

  22. Budd, J., Kerfoot, W.C., Pilant, A., and Jipping, L.M., 1999, The Keweenaw current and ice rafting:  use of satellite imagery to investigate copper-rich particle dispersal,  J. Great Lakes Res. v. 25, pp. 642-662. [PDF]

  23. Butler, B.S. and Burbank, W.S., 1929, The copper deposits of Michigan, USGS Prof. Pap. 144, 238 pp.  [online book]

  24. Butterfield, N.J., Knoll, A.H., and Swett, K., 1988, Exceptional preservation of fossils in an Upper Proterozoic shale, Nature, v. 334, pp. 424-427.  doi:10.1038/334424a0

  25. Campbell, B.A. and Campbell, D.B., 1992, Analysis of volcanic surface morphology on Venus from comparison of Arecibo, Magellan and terrestrial airborne radar data,  J. Geophys. Res., v. 97, pp. 16293-16314.

  26. Cannon, W.F., 1994, Closing of the Midcontinent Rift: a far-field effect of Grenvillian compression, Geology, v. 22, pp. 155-158. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0155:COTMRA>2.3.CO;2

  27. Cannon, W.F. and Nicholson, S.W., 2000, Geologic Map of the Keweenaw and Adjacent Area Michigan to accompany USGS Map I-2696, 7 pp. [Pamphlet]

  28. Cannon, W.F. and Nicholson, S.W., 2001, Geologic Map of the Keweenaw and Adjacent Area Michigan, USGS Map I-2696. Scale = 1:100,000.

  29. Cannon, W. F., Peterman, Z. E., & Sims, P. K.,1993. Crustal‐scale thrusting and origin of the Montreal River monocline‐A 35‐km‐thick cross section of the midcontinent rift in northern Michigan and Wisconsin. Tectonics, 12(3), 728-744.

  30. Chen, J., Blume, H-P., Beyer, L., 2000, Weathering of rocks induced by lichen colonization – a review, Catena, v. 39, pp. 121-146.  [PDF]

  1. Cornwall, H.R., 1951a, Differentiation in Magmas of the Keweenawan Series, J Geol, v. 59, pp. 151-172. [online article]

  2. Cornwall, H.R., 1951b, Differentiation in lavas of the Keweenawan series and the origin of the copper deposits of Michigan, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 62, pp. 159-202.

  3. Cornwall, H.R., 1954a, Bedrock geology of the Delaware, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-51, scale 1:24,000.

  4. Cornwall, H. R., 1954b, Bedrock geology of the Lake Medora quadrangle, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-52, scale 1:24,000.

  5. Cornwall, H.R., 1954c, Bedrock geology of the Phoenix quadrangle, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-34, scale 1:24,000.

  6. Cornwall, H.R., 1955, Bedrock geology of the Fort Wilkins quadrangle, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-74, scale 1:24,000.

  7. Cornwall, H.R. and White, W.S., 1955, Bedrock geology of the Manitou Island quadrangle, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-73, scale: 1:24,000.

  8. Cornwall, H.R. and Wright, J.C., 1954, Bedrock geology of the Eagle Harbor quadrangle, Michigan. USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-36, scale: 1:24,000.

  9. Cornwall, H.R. and Wright, J.C., 1956, Geology of Laurium Quadrangle, Michigan, USGS  Mineral Investigations Field Studies Map MF 47, scale 1:24,000.

  10. Craddock, J. P., Konstantinou, A., Vervoort, J. D., Wirth, K. R., Davidson, C., Finley-Blasi, L., Juda, N. A., & Walker, E., 2013. Detrital Zircon Provenance of the Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent Rift, Lake Superior Region, USA. Journal of Geology, 121(1), 57-73.

  11. Crisp, J. and Baloga, S., 1994, The influence of crystallization and entrainment of cooler material on the emplacement of basaltic aa lava flows, J. Geophys. Res., v. 99, pp. 11819-11831.

  12. Cummings, K. and Bjornerud, M., 2011, Possible eukaryotic macrofossils in the 1.1 Ga Copper Harbor Formation, Michigan, Institute on Lake Superior Geology, 57th Annual Meeting Proceedings Volume 57 Part 1 – Program and Abstracts, Fitz, T., Mills, A., Wilson, K., Bodette, C. and Cramer, D., eds., pp. 22-23. [PDF]

  13. Cusack, C.C. and Mihelcic, J.R., 1999, Sediment toxicity from copper in the Torch Lake (MI) great lakes area of concern, J. Great Lakes Res., v. 25, pp. 735-743. [PDF]

  14. Davis, D.W. and Paces, J.B., 1990, Time resolution of geologic events on the Keweenaw Peninsula and implications for development of the Midcontinent Rift system, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., v 97, pp. 54–64. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(90)90098-I.

  15. Davis, D.W. and Green, J.C., 1997, Geochronology of the North American Midcontinent Rift in western Lake Superior and implication for its geodynamic evolution, Can. J. Earth Sci., v. 35, pp. 476-488.

  16. Davidson, E.S., Espenshade, G.H., White, W.S. and Wright, J.C., 1955, Bedrock geology of the Mohawk quadrangle, Michigan, USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-54, scale 1:24,000.

  17. DeGraff, J. M., 1976, Structural and age relationships at the Lac La Belle magnetic anomaly, Keweenaw County, Michigan, Institute on Lake Superior Geology, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting, St. Paul, MN, v. 22, pp. 19-20. [abstract] unpublished MS Thesis, Michigan Technological University.

  18. DeGraff, J.M. and Aydin, A., 1993, Effect of thermal regime on growth increment and spacing of contraction joints in basaltic lava, J. Geophys. Res., v. 98(B4), pp. 6411-6430. doi:10.1029/92JB01709

  19. DeGraff, J.M., Long, P.E., and Aydin, A., 1989, Use of joint-growth directions and rock textures to infer thermal regimes during solidification of basaltic lava flows, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., v. 38, pp. 309-324.

  20. Dickinson, W.R., & Gehrels, G.E., 2009 Use of U–Pb ages of detrital zircons to infer maximum depositional ages of strata: a test against a Colorado Plateau Mesozoic database. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288.1, 115-125.

  21. Diehl, J.F., Durant, A.J., and Schepke, C., 2009, Paleomagnetism of Silver Island, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan: Additional support (?) for the primary curvature of the MCR, American Geophysical Union, Spring Meeting 2009, Abstract #GP11E-01, 2009AGUSMGP11E.01D

  22. Ding, X., Ripley, E.M., Shirey, S.B., and Li, C., 2012, Os, Nd, O, and S isotopic constraints on country rock contamination in the conduit-related Eagle Cu-Ni-(PGE) deposit, Midcontinent Rift system, Upper Michigan, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 89, pp. 10-30.

  23. Docekal, J., 1970, Earthquakes of the stable interior, with emphasis on the midcontinent, Ph.D. dissertation on file in Library, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

  24. Dorr, J.A. and Eschman, D.F., 1970, Geology of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 488.

  25. Earth Science Literacy Initiative, 2009, Earth Science literacy principles. 13 pp. [Brochure]

  26. Eckert, K.B., 2000, The Sandstone Architecture of the Lake Superior Region, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, M, 344 pp.

  27. Edsal, T.A., 1998, Great Lakes, pp. 219-254 in Mac, M.J., Opler, P.A., Puckett Haecker, C.E., and Doran, P.D., Status and trends of the nation’s biological resources. Vol. 1. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 436 pp. [PDF]

Silver Island
  1. Elmore,R.D. 1983, Precambrian non-marine stromatolites in alluvial fan deposits, the Copper Harbor Conglomerate, upper Michigan, Sedimentology, v. 30, pp. 829-842.

  2. Elmore, R.D., 1984, The Copper Harbor Conglomerate: A late Precambrian fining-upward alluvial fan sequence in northern Michigan, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 95, pp. 610–617. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1984)95<610:TCHCAL>2.0.CO;2

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  4. Farrand, W.R., 1988, The Glacial Lakes around Michigan, Bulletin 4, MI Department of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division, Lansing, MI, [PDF]

  5. Fisher, W.L., 1969, Facies characterization of Gulf Coast basin delta systems, with some Holocene analogues, Gulf Coast Assn of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 19, pp. 239-261.

  6. Foster, J.W. and Whitney, J.D., 1850a, Report on the geology and topography of a portion of the Lake Superior land district, in two parts. Part I: Copper lands, 3 maps, House of Representatives, 31st. Congress, Washington, D.C. [PDF]

  7. Foster, J.W. and Whitney, J.D., 1850b, Geological map of the district between Portage Lake and Montreal River, Lake Superior, Michigan, assisted by S.W. Hill and W. Schlatter,  accompanies “ Report on the geology and topography of a portion of the Lake Superior land district. Part I:  Copper lands.” Washington, D.C.

  8. Foster, J.W. and Whitney, J.D., 1851, Geological map of the Keweenaw Point, Lake Superior, Michigan, accompanies “ Report on the geology and topography of a portion of the Lake Superior land district. Part I:  Copper lands.”  Washington, D.C.

  9. Frantti, G.E., 1982, Seismicity investigation of Southern Lake Superior Precambrian province, final report 1977-81, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 70 pp. 

  10. Gillespie, R., Harrison, W.B., III, and Grammer, G. M., 2008, Geology of Michigan and the Great Lakes, Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, Western Michigan University, Cengage Brooks/Cole, Canada, 39 pp. [Brochure]

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  12. Goode, J.R. and Wohl, E., 2008, Spatial Patterns and Effectiveness of Potholes at two spatial scales: A field example, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #H53B-1020, 12/2008, 2008AGUFM.H53B1020G

  13. Goodge, J.W., Vervoort, J.D., Fanning, C.M., Brecke, D.M., Farmer, G.L., Williams, I.S., Myrow, P.M., and DePaolo, D.J., 2008, A Positive Test of East Antarctica-Laurentia Juxtaposition Within the Rodinia Supercontinent, Science, v. 321, pp. 235-240. [PDF]

  14. Gordon, D.W., 1988, Revised instrumental hypocenters and correlation of earthquake locations and tectonics in the central United States, USGS Prof Paper 1364, 69 pp.

  15. Green, J.C., 1989, Physical volcanology of mid-proterozoic plateau lavas: the Keweenawan North Shore Volcanic Group, Minnesota, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 101, pp. 486-500.

  16. Hack, J.T., 1965, Postglacial Drainage evolution and stream geometry in the Ontonagon area, Michigan, USGS Geological Survey Professional Paper 504-B, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

  17. Halls, H.C. and Pesonen, L.J., 1982, Paleomagnetism of Keweenawan rocks, in Wold, R.J. and Hinze, W.J., eds., Geology and Tectonics of the Lake Superior Basin, Geo. Soc. Am. Mem., v. 156, pp. 173-201.

  18. Hamblin, W.K., 1958, Cambrian sandstones of northern Michigan, Publication 51, Michigan Department of Conservation, Geological Survey Division, Lansing, MI, 146 pp. [PDF]

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  20. Hedgman, C. A., 1992. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Jacobsville Sandstone, from Ironwood to Keweenaw Bay. Michigan (MS Thesis): University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 158p.

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  22. Hobbs, W.H., 1911, Earthquakes in Michigan, Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, Publication 5, Part II, 11 pp. [PDF]

  23. Hobbs, W.H., 1944, Biographical Memoir of Frank Leverett, 1859-1943, National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, v. XXIII-Eighth Memoirs, pp. 201-215. [PDF]

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  26. Hubbard, H., 1975, Lower Keweenawan volcanic rocks of Michigan and Wisconsin, J. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, v. 3, pp. 529-541. [PDF]

  27. Huber, N.K., 1969, Pink copper-bearing prehnite from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USGS Prof Pap., No. 650-D, pp. D 63-68.

  28. Huber, N.K., 1973, Geologic map of Isle Royale National Park, Keweenaw County, Michigan, USGS Map No. I-796. [Map]

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  32. Hutchinson. D.R., White, R.S., Cannon, W.F., and Schulz, K.K., 1990, Keweenaw hot spot: Geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift System. J. Geophys. Res., v. 95, pp. 10869-10884. doi: 10.1029/JB095iB07p10869

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Liverworts at Bare Bluff